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2015年流感来势汹汹 田州民众需多加小心
作者:Admin  来源:《田纳西新闻》   文字大小:【】【】【

                      

                      

TDH urges  increased vigilance to prevent flu and flu complications

NASHVILLE – The Tennessee Department of HealthTDH is urging all Tennesseans to increase their efforts to prevent flu and flu-related health threats by getting immunized and talking with their healthcare providers about flu-like symptoms.  Since 2007 there have been 29 pediatric flu-related deaths recorded in Tennessee, including three in December of this year.

That is the highest number of pediatric flu deaths in the month of December since current reporting began in 2007. Prior to 2007 pediatric influenza deaths were not specifically required to be reported.

“Our heartfelt thoughts and condolences go out to the families and friends affected by these tragic deaths and we are deeply sorry for the loss of each of these children,” said TDH Commissioner John Dreyzehner, MD, MPH. Regrettably there is no perfect protection against influenza, and some people are more vulnerable than others so we continue to urge everyone more than six months of age to be vaccinated, to provide the best available protection to the people we love, our communities and ourselves. We also urge individuals with flu-like symptoms to rapidly consult their healthcare providers about the advisability of beginning antiviral medications.”

    本报记者联合报道  美国联邦疾病防治中心(CDC)20141230日表示,本季(12月份以来)迄今已有15名兒童死於流感相关病症,其中三例发生在田纳西州,并正式宣布流感为目前的流行病。

    通报流感病例升高的州,从上周的13州增至22州,美国国內每一地区都爆发流行,包括感冒、細菌感染和数种呼吸道病毒的類似流感病例大增,在接受检验的人中,有11%36%染上呼吸道流感。2015年流感季來得較早,已导致数千人住院。

    田纳西州卫生厅声称,自2007年以来共有29名儿童死于流感或者流感相关的病症,但是2014年的病例竟然有三例,而且这三例都发生在去年12月,这不得不需要民众注意。卫生厅厅长John Dreyzehner医师说,到目前为止,尚无更好地办法防止悲剧的发生,厅长鼓励六个月以下儿童接种流感疫苗,同时在发现流感症状时立刻就医。

    专家认为,对付流感症状最好的药物就是抗病毒药物,如oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) or zanamivir (Relenza®)。根据美国联邦CDC的研究,早期用药治疗会有不错的效果。

    田纳西州卫生厅的资料显示,目前报告的确诊病例来自全州95个郡中的44个郡。流感的高发时段通常是12月到2月,但是不少年份显示流感会持续到5月。

    其他15名死亡儿童來自亞利桑納、科罗拉多、佛罗里达、明尼苏达、北卡、内华达、俄亥俄、德州、维吉尼亚九州,在病重住院的兒童中,半数原本健康。很多患有潜伏疾病的病人肥胖或有哮喘,這两种情況會提高染流感生重病的危险。

       12月底住院者也增加,耆老和四歲以下兒童住院的比率最高。田納西州2014年至少有六名兒童死於流感,該州被列為流感疫情广泛的地区。东田納西兒童医院12月已治疗了442名感染流感的兒童。明尼苏达州有三名兒童丧生,另有七人住在圣保罗的兒童医院加护病房。

        虽然本次流感病毒菌株的威力特別可怕,但是美国广播公司新闻网(ABC News)“健康与医学”总编辑Richard Besser医师說,流感一向对兒童、長者和免疫系統比较弱者就可能致命,每年总有約百名兒童死於流感,加上成年人,一年因流感死亡的人数介於4000人到50,000人之間。

    美国疫情最严重的州位於南部、中西部、西部和新泽西州,专家指出,由於流感病毒很难预测,目前並不清楚為何這些地区的疫情最严重,但是也许与注射疫苗比率低有关。

    貝瑟医师表示,過去四年流感季愈來愈早開始,這是令人擔心的趋势,以往到2月或3月才到流感高峰期,現在似乎12月底就到达高峰。CDC之前曾警告,今年流感季可能特別嚴重,除了H3N2病毒以外,还有H1N1和两种B型病毒,所以至少有四种流感病毒菌株肆虐。

    联邦疾病控制中心(CDC)已宣布,今冬流感的发病已达到流行阶段。新泽西卫生厅流行病专家称H3N2流感病毒株总是来势凶猛。当出现咳嗽、喷嚏时,下列10件事应当严加注意,值得田纳西州民众参考:

1. 流感季节将持续多久?流感的发病可从10月份持续到5月,一般在1月和2月达到高峰。但有可能延续到五月。

2. 如何知道是患了流感?根据CDC的诊断标准,流感的症状包括:发热、发冷、咳嗽、咽喉痛、流涕、鼻塞、肌肉和全身痛、头痛、乏力,有些病人还可伴有呕吐和腹泻。虽然严重程度因个人和病毒株而异,但流感的症状通常比普通感冒严重。

3. 患了流感怎么办?根据CDC的建议,多数流感病情不重,除了在家休息,无需治疗或吃药。然而,婴幼儿、65岁以上老人、孕妇以及免疫系统功能低下或健康状况差的人群应该格外注意,避免感染流感。如果出现严重呕吐、头晕、呼吸困难、皮肤变色等症状,应及时就诊,或立即前往急诊室。有些抗病毒药物可能会有所帮助,但需要医生处方。

4. 有关流感疫苗?根据CDC报告,从10月开始,约1亿5100万支疫苗已分送至全国各地。CDC建议,年龄6个月以上者均可接种流感疫苗;对于一些幼儿,最好接种两次,以达到最佳预防效果;只要流感仍在流行,任何时候接种疫苗都不晚。

5. 本季节最流行的病毒株:根据CDC报告,AH3N2病毒株是本年度传播最广的病毒株,与前年流行的病毒株相同。这意味着这次的病毒疫情将如两年前一样严重。

6. 流感疫苗能否抵御今年流行的病毒株?在分送的1亿5100万疫苗中,约7600万支可以预防4种不同的毒株,但绝大多数流感疫苗、鼻腔喷雾剂和喷射注射剂与今年流行的病毒株不甚匹配,也就是没有有效的预防作用,但仍可预防一些其它常见病毒株。

7. 如何避免将病毒传播给其他人?染病后最好呆在家里,经常洗手,咳嗽和喷嚏时遮住口腔等等。

8. 家人或同事感染流感,如何防止传染给自己?尽量避免与病人密切接触。肥皂洗手、消毒患者接触过的物体表面可帮助清除病毒。尽可能不要碰眼睛、鼻子和口腔。

9. 病毒的传染期是多久?CDC建议退热后继续留在家中24小时。因为在这段时间之前,病毒可能会播散。

10. 本季度会有猪流感?  2009年和2010年流行的H1N1病毒株,又称为“猪流感”,可能是最可怕的流感病毒株,目前也可能夹在流行的毒株之中。(请浏览田纳西州卫生厅网站:http://health.state.tn.us/

Those with flu-like symptoms should ask about the use of anti-viral medications such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) or zanamivir (Relenza®). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, clinical benefits are greatest when antiviral treatment is administered early, ideally within 48 hours of symptoms starting. These antivirals may decrease the severity of flu but are not always advisable for every patient. The CDC also advises treatment with antivirals is recommended as soon as possible without waiting for confirmatory testing for those patients with confirmed or suspected influenza who have severe, complicated or progressive illness.

“It’s important to contact your healthcare provider so appropriate treatment can begin quickly,” said State Epidemiologist Tim Jones, MD.  “While common colds and the flu may have similar symptoms, including muscle pain, fever, sore throat, coughing and overall weakness, the onset of flu usually happens more quickly and the symptoms are often more severe.  Your healthcare provider can evaluate you and advise if anti-viral medications are appropriate.

In some cases, he or she may provide antivirals before flu confirmation tests are complete, as a precautionary measure.”

Currently in Tennessee influenza-like illness activity is above CDC epidemic thresholds and by using the Tennessee sentinel provider network the TDH has detected confirmed cases of influenza in 44 of 95 counties. Flu activity most commonly peaks in the U.S. between December and February, but seasonal flu can continue to occur as late as May.  Flu will still be a threat for many months and for that reason, those who have not received flu vaccine by injection or nasal spray should do so quickly to have increased protection for the remainder of the 2014-2015 flu season.

Even in years, like this one, when other strains not present in vaccine are circulating, flu vaccine is still the best protection available. Other key protective measures include hand washing, avoidance of touching your face, covering a cough or sneeze and staying home if you are sick to avoid exposing others.

For additional information about the 2014-2015 flu season, visit the CDC website at: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/index.htm

 (华牧 阳光联合报道)


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